# Atomic model by Rutherford-nuclear model

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## Atomic model by Rutherford

According to Rutherford's nuclear model of an atom , most of the mass of an atom are concentrated in a very small region known as Atomic nucleus. The size of the nucleus is extremely small as compared to the size of an atom. So according to Rutherford most of the space in an atom is empty. The negative charged particles known as electrons revolve around the nucleus in the circular orbits. The centripetal force required for rotating the electrons around the nucleus is provided by the coulomb's force of attraction between the nucleus and the electrons. According to Rutherford, atom is electrically neutral because the number of revolving electrons is equal to the number of positive charges in the nucleus.

 atomic model

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### Atomic model by Rutherford

Results of Rutherford's nuclear model of an atom :

1)  As most of the alpha particles pass through the gold foil undeflected, so it indicates that the most of the space in an atom is empty.

2)  Alpha particles being positively charged and having large mass as compared to the electron could be deflected only by some heavy and positively charged region. Rutherford named this heavy and positively charged region as nucleus of an atom.

3) The third result of his experiment indicates that the Alpha particles which travel towards the nucleus directly, get retarded due to the coulomb's force of repulsion and ultimately come to rest and then fly off in the opposite direction due to repulsive force between the Alpha particles and The nucleus of an atom.

 atomic model results

### Atomic model by Rutherford

Drawbacks of Rutherford's model of Atom

Rutherford's model of an atom suffered from various drawbacks and some of them are discussed below:

1) It failed to explain the stability of an atom :

According to Rutherford, electrons revolve around the nucleus in circular orbits. As we know that anything which revolves in circular paths is accelerated towards the centre of the circular path and has centripetal acceleration that is basically equal to square of velocity divided by the radius. i.e. V²/r. Thus the electrons revolving around the nucleus of the atom are accelerated towards the nucleus of the atom. According to Classical thermodynamics , any charged particle while accelerating or retarding losses energy through electromagnetic radiations. Therefore, the electrons revolving around the nucleus must lose energy Continuosly. As a result of this, the radius of the path of the electron should go on decreasing and ultimately it is to fall into the nucleus by following a spiral path. But in fact, it never happens. Rutherford could not explain it. Hence Rutherford's model of an atom  failed to explain the stability of an atom.

2) It failed to explain the spectrum of an atom :

According to Rutherford, electrons can revolve around the nucleus in circular orbits of all possible radii. So it is obvious that an atom can emit continuous energy spectrum. However, if we consider the simplest atom like hydrogen it is having a line spectrum instead of a continuous spectrum. So here again Rutherford's model of an atom failed in explaining the line spectrum of an atom.

This article provides you information about Rutherford's  atomic model - a nuclear model  including its drawbacks and results.