Fundamental Forces in Nature


Fundamental Forces in Nature

Though you have heard about the different types of concepts in physics and each one having their own role. But in todays article I am going to discuss with you those type of concepts without which the foundation of physics is incomplete .These concepts are related to the forces or the interactions in the nature . Lets discuss them 

Fundamental Forces in Nature,interactions in nature
Fundamental Forces in Nature

These are the forces which are responsible for the attraction or repelling of the two interacting particles . The Fundamental Forces are also responsible for the decay of particles and the nuclei .

There are four types of fundamental forces in nature . These are ;

  1. Gravitational forces
  2. Electromagnetic forces
  3. Strong nuclear force  and
  4. Weak forces

Fundamental Forces in Nature

These Forces are mediated by a particle known as the quanta of force ,carrier mediating particle or the field particle . The carrier is exchanged between the interacting particles . However , the mechanism of interaction can be understood as follows :

The interacting particles create  or emit the quanta of force or the carrier  which is absorbed by the other interacting particles . This process leads to the origin of interaction between the particles. However, the field quantum or the carrier exists for a short time between the creation and the absorption . This  short time is known as the characteristic life time. It should be noted that the carrier or the field quantum can have zero or non-zero mass.

Fundamental Forces in Nature

There are four types of the interactions or Forces in nature and hence there are four types of carriers or quanta of force.

  1. Gravitational interaction:

    we all know that the gravitational interaction was first discovered by Sir Isaac Newton this interaction is attractive in nature and is the weakest interaction among all other interactions .

According to this , the interaction or the force between the two point masses is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely  proportional to the square of the distances between them . That is ,

                                                         F = G M1 M2 / R2
Where , G = 6.67 × 10   Nm2 Kg -2 is a gravitational constant  and M1 , M2  are the masses of the two interacting particles  , R the distance between the two interacting particles .

The mediating particle or the carrier of the gravitational interaction is known as graviton , the quanta of gravitational field . Graviton is called BOSON. It has no mass, no charge but has a spin value equal to 1. However , the graviton has not been observed experimentally.

  1. Electromagnetic Interaction :

    The interaction or the force between the two static or the moving point charges is known as the Electromagnetic interaction .This type of interaction obeys inverse square law. that is ,

                                                                                    F = 1/R2

Electromagnetic interaction is both attractive as well as repulsive . That is, like charges repel and unlike charges attract  each other. The strength of Electromagnetic interaction is given by a constant ;

                                                              α = e2 / 4πE0hc   =  1/ 137

The mediating particle or the carrier of the electromagnetic interaction is a photon. It means, that the exchange of photons between the charged particles leads to the electromagnetic interaction between them. Photons are having zero rest mass , zero charge and spin 1 that means they are like Bosons.

Fundamental Forces in Nature 

  1. Strong Nuclear interaction :

    we can define Nuclear interaction as that type of interaction which is responsible for the holding of Nucleons inside the nucleus of an atom. Now the question arises in your mind that why this type of  interaction is named as strong interaction?


As the interaction overcomes the coulomb's  force of attraction between the nucleons to keep them inside the nucleus of an atom. This type of interaction does not hold the inverse square law.

However, its strength is characterised by a constant known as Fermi constant which is given by ;

                                            f2/ h c = 1    

where f denotes the charge corresponding to the field of nuclear force.

The mediating particle in this type of interaction is known as Gluon .Exchange  of gluons between the nucleons leads to the strong nuclear interaction between them. However, gluon is having zero charge , zero mass and zero spin.

  1. Weak interaction  : 

  This type of interaction is also called as the short range of interaction .The magnitude of this type of interaction is very small as compered to the strong and the electromagnetic interaction. Some type of processes like α-decay , β- decay ,decays of other elementary particles like π-mesons ,µ- mesons happen due to this type of weak interaction.

The strength of weak interaction i8s given by a dimensionless constant;

                                                                         g2/h c = 10-14
 where g indicates the charge given to the field of weak interaction .

The mediating particles or the carriers of the weak interaction are charged W± Bosons and neutral Z° Boson . The mass of W ± Bosons = 81800  M e v/c2  and Z° Boson = 92600 M e v/c2 .

This article provides you information about the Fundamental Forces in Nature. It also provides you information about their carriers or mediating particles .

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