Camera - invention and controls of camera


Camera - invention and controls of camera 


Like other important technologies, the cameras which we are using today is the result of a long, iterative process in which number of great minds had contributed . The earliest camera technology began to appear around the fifth century B.C. – the camera obscura. This consisted of an a big enclosed box having small opening through which sunlight passed, and was projecting a temporary images of  outside world onto a  wall or on a target wall.

Dealing with the invention of camera ,it was developed by a multiple number of people, over the course of history. But,as we know it today, the camera was invented by a french inventor named Joseph Nicephore Niepce  in  1816 (approximately).

Camera 📷 - invention

A photographic camera consists of a light proof box, at one end of which a converging lens system is fitted. At the other end of the box, a light sensitive film is fitted, which is opposite to the lens system. The lens system forms the real and inverted image of the object.
 For a nicely looking photograph it is important to adjust the amount of light entering into the camera accurately. 

Camera , invention and controls of camera
Camera - invention and controls of camera

Camera - controls of camera 

Following controls are provided in the camera:

1. Shutter :

a Shutter S is placed in between the film and the lens system of a camera. When a photograph is to be taken, the Shutter opens for a suitable amount of time and closes quickly. The film of the camera is thus exposed to light from the lens system only for a calculated time. The shutter of a camera is constructed so that it  closes automatically after a certain  time interval which is required . The speed of a shutter is controlled by a ring outside the camera , on which large number of timings are marked.

2. Exposure Time :

 Exposure time or Shutter speed in photography ,is the length of time when the film or digital sensor inside the camera is exposed to light. 

It depends upon the light conditions. This has to be adjusted according to the light conditions. The exposure time is small in bright sunlight and is small in shade or inside the room. 

The exposure time control in cameras carries the marks 500, 250, 125, 60, 30, 15 etc. This means that when the time control is adjusted against these marks,  the light which enters the camera will be cut off after 1/500 sec, 1/250 sec , 1/125 sec and so on respectively. 

3. Aperture control :

The diameter of the circular opening through which sunlight passes into the camera is adjusted by the aperture control. A small aperture in bright sunlight may allow enough light to produce a good image. But in poor light conditions, the aperture has to be made large. 

Marks like 2, 2.8,  4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16 etc. are present on aperture control. These marks are called the f numbers, where f is the focal length of the converging lens system of the camera . These numbers thus correspond to the aperture of diameter f/2 , f/2.8 , f/4 and so on respectively. 

4. Film speed :

 Film speed is the measure of a  sensitivity of a photographic film to light , determined by the sensitometry which is measured on  various types of numerical scales, the most recent one or important one being the ISO system.

Film speed lets your camera  or light meter to know what other settings are needed to get a good exposure.

A fast film requires a relatively smaller time of exposure, in comparison to a slow film. Therefore, in poor light conditions, slow films are preferred and vice versa. 

5. View finder :

It is the part of a camera  which displays the image to be taken, and is the only visible when the camera  is held to the photographer's eye.

View finder encloses the objects to be photographed in a proper frame either circular or rectangular. 

6. Focussing control :

It is one of the most important technique to understand in photography especially when you start to shoot.

It adjusts the lens system from the photographic film in the camera. so that, the image of a desired object is focussed sharply on the photographic film. 

7. Depth of focus :

Depth of focus  is the distance between the closest and the farthest objects in a photo that appears sharp.

It indicates the range of the object distances over which the focussing is reasonably good. 

8. Exposure time :

Exposure metre , also called as light metre is a auxiliary photographic device which measures the intensity of a light and indicates the proper exposure that is,  the combination of an aperture  and a shutter speed for a film or image sensors having a specific sensitivity.

Exposure metre is in fact a photo cell connected to a sensitive metre. 


 This article provides you information related to the camera  and the scientists involved in the development of this amazing device . It also provides you information about the different parts of camera . By the end, the concept of camera and it's different parts is clear. 

Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post