Compton effect


 Compton effect

 As far as  classical theory of X-ray scattering is considered  ,the incident electromagnetic waves get absorbed in the scattering material. The electrons of the scattering materials are set into vibrations and thus they are accelerated. 

So according to its perspective means classical theory of X-ray scattering , these electrons serve as radiators of energy. So what we have to consider is that it is two way process ,first absorption takes place then radiation occurs.

Compton effect

If this version is accepted as such then what you think will happen. Here we go below ;

a)  The scattered X-rays  should have the same frequency or  the same wavelength as the incident X-rays, it doesn't depend upon the direction in which we observe scattered radiation. 

b)  In distribution of intensity, the scattered radiation should be symmetrical. 

But unfortunately, when these experiments were actually performed in laboratory ,it was found that the above expected inferences did not hold good.  

Read 👉: Photoelectric effect 

Compton effect

However, this experiment was further performed by A. H. Compton in 1992 by using the  instruments shown in the figure; 

Compton Effect,experiment of Compton Effect
Compton Effect
 X-rays of sharply defined frequency are incident on a block of a scattering material. In this case, he used a characteristic line of molybdenum and incident it on a block of carbon. The scattered  X-rays can be analysed by a spectrometer which can be moved along an arc as shown in the above figure. 

Read 👉: Spectrum and types of spectrum 

Compton effect

According to A .H. Compton  ,when a monochromatic Beam of high frequency radiation means X-ray is scattered by a scatter, the scattered radiation contains two components one which is having the same frequency as that of incident radiation and other with a lower frequency. According to him, the radiation of lower frequency is called modified radiation or incoherent  scattering while the radiation of unchanged frequency is called an unmodified radiation or coherent shattering. This phenomenon is called as Compton effect.

It is possible to explain the Compton effect by using the wave theory of radiation, which states that the electromagnetic wave incident on the scatter should produce in it a secondary wave of the same wavelength. But A .H. Compton  in 1922, explained this effect perfectly on the basis of quantum theory of radiation , which states that the radiation consists of small energy particles or packets called as photons. The energy of each photon is equal to h v,  where h is called Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.

Compton effect 

A. H. Compton stated that the phenomenon of scattering is actually an elastic collision between the two particles I.e. The photon of the radiation and the electron of the scatter . According to him, when photon is incident on the electron of the  scatter which is actually at rest,  it transfers some energy to the electron of scatter and loses a part of its own  energy. This means that the energy of incident photon becomes less than that of scattered photon. Thus , a change in frequency as well as in wavelength occurs in photon. This phenomenon of change in the wavelength or frequency of the scattered radiation due to its interaction with matter is known as Compton Effect and the change in wavelength is called Compton shift.

This article provides you information related to Compton effect. The discovery of Compton effect and different ideas related to Compton effect.


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