integrated circuits -classification and uses


integrated circuits

I hope you've heard about the name of integrated circuits also named as I c's . No doubt if you're unaware about this name then you don't need to feel worried about this amazing concept
because here in today's article I'm going to erase your whole confusions related to  I c's. let's start 

" This  concept  was first introduced in the year 1958. Since then the  concept has reached great technological heights than other concepts and has helped in the miniaturization and development of a lot of components like computers, laptops, mobiles , and many more devices in the digital world. This concept plays an important role in the technical world ".

Here in today's article I will cover topics like integrated circuits, their classification, their uses as well as their advantages and disadvantages. 

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integrated circuits

What do you mean by integrated circuits?

integrated circuits  are those circuits in which the circuit components like resistors, capacitors, diodes and transistors etc are automatically parts of a small semi conductor chip. 

So what we learn from the above definition is that integrated circuits consists of number of circuit components and their inter-connections in small packages to perform complete electronic function. The various used in integrated circuit are formed and after that they are connected to a small chip consisting of a semi-conductor material.

integrated circuits , integrated circuit function
integrated circuits
The given figure is actually made up of three parts defined as Fig A. Fig B. and Fig C. 

Let's move on to the Figures ; 

In fig A, there is a thin slice of single crystal of silicon which is about 0.05 m thick which is called as silicon Wafer. 

In fig B,  There is a small portion of silicon wafer of dimensions 50mil × 50mil WA here mil stands for mil inch. This small portion of the Wafer is known as Silicon chip. 

The total area which is needed for a resistor, diode and a transistor should be of dimensions (12mil × 2mil), (4.5mil × 3mil) and (6.5mil × 4mil)  respectively, and have been shown on the silicon chip. These components are then connected internally just to produce a desired current. 

In fig C, we can see that it shows mounting of a silicon chip into a casing which is having pins that are connected internally to I.C and the other ends of the pins are brought out of the casing for external connections. 

Now move on to the next topic which is related to the Classification of I.C ; 

Depending upon the number of components fabricated on a chip, the integrated circuits have been classified into the following categories :-

1)  Small scale integrated circuits :

These integrated circuits are having circuit components that are equal to or less than 10.

2) Medium scale integrated circuits :

These integrated circuits are having circuit components less or equal to 100.

3) Large scale integrated circuits :

These integrated circuits have circuit components less or equal to 1000.

4) Very large scale integrated circuits :

These are those circuits which are having circuit components  > 1000.

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The I c technology has made it possible for companies to make electronic components both big as well as small components available in a large scale. 

The I c technology is widely used to make televisions, calculator, watches ,cellphones including computers and laptops. 

integrated circuits

Advantages of I.C's :

1) They are having lesser weight due to very small circuits.

2) Their total cost is low. 

3) They require less power to operate. 

4) They have greater ability to operate at extreme values of temperature. 

5) They require very small space, as the various circuit elements are fabricated in a single chip of Semi-Conducting material. 

6) They are highly reliable due to a very few number of connections. 

Disadvantages of I.C's:

1)   If any component in an integrated circuit goes out of order, the whole I c is to be replaced by a new one. 

2)  In an integrated circuit, it is not possible to fabricate inductors and transformers on the surface of single semi-conductor chip. These components are connected from outside to the semi-conductor chip. 

3)   It is not possible to produce high power greater than 10 watt in integrated circuits.

This article provides you information related to the integrated circuits including their uses , advantages and disadvantages.

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