Dielectrics and polarisation behavior of non conducting substances

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Dielectrics and polarisation 


  Dielectrics and polarisation. Dielectric is another word for insulator.Dielectric is an insulating material or a very poor conductor of electric current.



Dielectrics and polarisation, Dielectrics and polarisation behaviour of non conducting substances in an electric field
Dielectrics and polarisation
polarization or polarisation is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations. the direction of the oscillation in transverse waves is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave.


Dielectrics and polarisation  behavior of non conducting substances in an electric field is an important topic to know. There are two topics in this article, one is dielectrics and other is polarisation. In this article I would like to cover all the information related to dielectrics and polarisation behavior of non conducting substances in an electric field.


Two types of non conducting substances have been discovered so far. one is Polar substances and other is non Polar substances. 


A)  Polar substances :


Polar substances are those substances which are made up of Polar molecules.


A molecule in which the center of mass of positive charges (average position of protons) doesn't coincidence with the centre of mass of negative charges ( average position of electrons ) ,when no external field is applied is called Polar molecule.


Examples : Hcl,  NH3 , H2O,  alcohol etc. 


Polar molecules do not have symmetrical shape. 

Effect of electric field on the polar substance :


In the absence of electric field also, a polar molecule has its own permanent electric dipole moment . Therefore, we can say that a polar molecule acts as an electric dipole .



Effect of electric field on the polar substance,Dielectrics and polarisation
Effect of electric field on the polar substance 


In the absence of electric field, Polar molecules in the non conducting substances are randomly oriented. They also form a closed chain and their net dipole moment is zero.



Therefore,  it is clear that in the absence of an electric field, such molecules together have no net dipole moment in the non conducting substance. In other words, the dipole moment of Polar substance in the absence of an external electric field is zero.


When an electric field E is applied across the substance, each dipole experiences a torque. This torque tends to align that is placed in line the molecule in the direction of the applied field giving surface layers of positive and negative charges.  The dipole moments of all molecules now get added and hence the substance has finite net dipole moment in the presence of an electric field. 


Note:


Remember that the effect of placing a polar substance in an electric field is simply aligning of the existing dipole moment of the molecules. It does not create any additional dipole moment, hence their importance in capacitors is the least.






B)  Non Polar substances :


The substances which are made up of non Polar molecules is known as non Polar substance.


A molecule in which the center of mass of positive charges (average position of protons)  coincides with the centre of mass of negative charges (average position of electrons)  is called non Polar molecule.


Examples : N2 ,O2 , H2 , Co2, methane,  benzene etc. 

A non polar molecule has symmetrical shape. 

Effect of electric field on the non poplar molecule:


A non Polar molecule has zero dipole moment of its own. When electric field E is applied, positive charge experiences a force (F=qE) in the direction of applied electric field. And the negative charge experiences a force (F=-qE) in a direction opposite to that of applied field (E).


Effect of electric field on the non polar molecule ,Dielectrics and polarisation
Effect of electric field on the non polar molecule



As a result of this, positive charge is pulled in the direction of E and negative charge is pulled in the direction opposite to that of field.  The separation between the charges continues till the forces acting on them due to applied field (E) are balanced by the internal forces.



Thus, a non Polar molecule is stretched and becomes a polar molecule and is called Induced electric dipole. The dipole moment of such an Induced electric dipole is called induced electric dipole moment.



Induced electric dipole moment disappears as soon as the external electric field is removed. In other words, non Polar molecule remains a polar molecules as long as electric field is applied across it. 



Conclusion:



As you know that the article discussed above provides you information related to Dielectrics and polarisation behavior of non conducting substances in an electric field. This article also provides you information related to the concept of Polar and non Polar molecule.



I hope the article was helpful for you. please share this article on social media and other sources , so that it can reach to many people. your feedback will help us in writing more informative articles. Thank you for your visit. Good Luck! 






1 Comments

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