Magnets - types and properties complete information.



Magnets  cover an important section in physics especially when dealing with the concept of magnetism. It is because of their importance that has accelerated  me to write an article about them.

That's why in today's article I would like to share with you an interesting article related to Magnets and their types. I will try myself to write it in simple and enjoyable language that you understand very easily. without wasting my precious time on introduction section. let's move on to the topic.

Two types of magnets have been developed so far. They are Natural Magnets, man-made or artificial Magnets . In this article I will also discuss with an important magnet namely a bar magnet. This type of magnet is also referred as magnetic dipole. 

Natural magnets :

Magnetite,  which is a naturally occurring iron ore can attract small pieces of iron and steel. When a linear piece of this one is suspended freely, it comes to rest along geographical North south direction. These special properties of Magnetite are referred to as "magnetism ".

The chemical formula of Magnetite is Fe3O4, and is actually an iron oxide ore.
It is a magnet with dark blackish brown colour also known as leading stone, kissing stone, load stone, lode stone or black stone.

The behavior of earth is like a natural magnet having geographical North and south poles. The Chinese people are credited for the discovery of directive property of the natural Magnets and the Greeks discovered their attractive property.

 The natural Magnets are not the strongest magnets. The shape of a natural magnet is normally irregular. In earlier times, ships used magnetite to assess the direction of travel. 

Man-made or artificial magnets:

The man made magnets are known as "Artificial Magnets ". These type of magnets are weak. Dealing with the question of their production,  they are simply produced ,when ordinary pieces of iron are rubbed with natural magnets. They acquire the attractive and directive properties.

The Artificial Magnets are stronger and can be made of many shapes. Magnetisation can also be produced by passing current through a coil 'wound over a piece of iron' (electromagnets).

A soft iron bar gets magnetised easily as compared to a steel bar but the steel bar does not lose magnetism readily. Bar Magnetsmagnetic  needle,  U-shaped magnets etc are some of the examples of man-made magnets.

Artificial Magnets such as a bar magnet can be demagnetised with the two simplest processes,first by heating it and second by hammering or throwing it repeatedly on the floor.

Bar magnet:

A rectangular shaped small piece of a rod having south and north poles of same strength separated with a small distance is referred to as a bar magnet. As discussed above, it is also called as a magnetic dipole. In fact, one end of the bar magnet acts as a north pole and the other end as a south pole. 

magnets , bar magnet
Bar Magnet

Properties of a Bar Magnet:

1) Property of alignment :

When a magnet is suspended freely, it comes to rest such that its North Pole always points towards geographical North and south pole automatically aims towards geographical south pole.

The line joining the north and south poles of a magnet is referred to as magnetic axis and the vertical line passing through this line is called magnetic meridian. 

2) property of attraction :

In fact, the poles of a magnet are not situated at the exact ends of a magnet but near the ends of a magnet.

Poles of a magnet have ability to attract small pieces of magnetic materials like iron, steel, cobalt, nickel etc. This ability of a magnetic pole is know as Pole strength. 

3) Like magnetic poles repel each other, while unlike magnetic poles attract each other :

When the South Pole of a magnet is brought near the North Pole  of another magnet, attraction takes place. But when the south pole of the magnet is brought near the south pole of another magnet, repulsion takes place. This is the fact behind the attraction and repulsion of magnetic poles. 

4) Property of induction :

In this, when a piece of ordinary magnetic material is brought near a bar magnet, it acquires the property of a magnet without any actual physical contact. such type of magnetism is called induced magnetism .

5) Property of pairs :

Magnetic poles always exist in Pairs whereas isolated electric charge exists. When a magnet is cut into pieces, it will result into two complete Magnets each having both North as well as South poles. Magnetic monopoles are not know to exist.

6) Repulsion test :

A magnet attracts unlike pole of another magnet as well as small iron pieces. Attractive property of a magnet cannot distinguish a magnetic material and a magnet. But if the polarity of the magnet is reversed then it will repel the like pole of the other magnet but attract the simple magnetic material like iron.

Thus we can say that the repulsion is the surest test for distinguishing between an iron piece and a magnet.


The article discussed above had provided an exact information related to the Magnets. It also discussed about their types and properties. In this article ,I tried my best to write this in simplest language.

I hope this article was helpful for you and has removed your confusions related to Magnets . please share this article on social media aaps and help others ,so that they can also get benefits of this article. Thank you for your visit.


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